First Clockwork Android

Hans Bullmann created clockwork figure androids in Nuremberg, Germany in 1525. An android is an automaton in human form, and some his male and female figures played musical instruments.

Date:
      1525
Name(s):
      Hans Bullmann
Occupation:
      Clock Maker
Location:
      Nuremberg, Germany

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James I – King of England

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. Continue reading

Fiji Has Modern Coinage

Fiji, Oceania created its first modern coinage in 1934. The British denominational coins were minted at the Royal Mint in London, England.

Date:
      1934
Name(s):
      Royal Mint
Location:
      London, England


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Johannes Gutenberg Constructs the Printing Press

Johannes Gutenberg designed and constructed the printing press despites an initial reference made during a lawsuit by the heirs of his financial bankers in 1439. Continue reading

Vehicle Seat Belt Patented

American inventor E.J. Claghorn patented the vehicular seat belt in 1885 designed to restrain passengers while moving at high speeds.

Date:
      1885
Name(s):
      E.J. Claghorn
Occupation:
      inventor
Location:
      USA


Additional Information:

  • Vehicular safety devices | Britannica.com
    The first patent for a restraining belt designed to protect passengers in road vehicles was granted to E.J. Claghorn in 1885. The first lap-type belt resembling the modern seat belt was a leather strap used on a United States Army airplane in 1910, and for the next 25 years seat belts were used primarily on aircraft.
  • The History of Seat Belts – The Inventors
    Swedish inventor, Nils Bohlin invented the three-point seat belt – not the first but the modern seatbelt – now a standard safety device in most cars. Nils Bohlin’s lap-and-shoulder belt was introduced by Volvo in 1959. 2-Point Seat Belt: A restraint system with two attachment points. A lap belt.
  • The Hotly Contested History of the Seat Belt | Esurance Blog
    May 23, 2011 – … by John Moore Williams+ · Cars, Safety. E.J. Claghorn’s seat belt. Schematic for the first patented American seatbelt. … Claghorn’s invention fizzled, but cars with seat belts begin to appear. With little traffic on the roads at the …
  • Seat Belt Invention? – Patent Plaques
    Nov 18, 2011 – The first safety-belt was patented by Edward J. Claghorn. … available to all other car manufactures and Bohlin promoted seat-belt wearing and …

Invention of Pendulum Clock

Vincenzo Galilei, the son of Galileo invented the pendulum clock in 1641. He realized the pendulum, at regular oscillation periods would make an efficient and accurate regulator of clock movement. Vincenzio’s clock design was improved upon by Dutch mathematician and astronomer, Christiaan Huygens in 1656. The weight-driven, pendulum-regulated led to smaller and less expensive wall clocks priced for the public.

Date:
      1641
Name(s):
      Christiaan Huygens
Occupation:
      Inventor
Location:
      Italy, Netherlands


Additional Information:

  • Galileo’s escapement – Wikipedia
    Galileo’s escapement is a design for a clock escapement, invented around 1637 by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642). It was the earliest design of a pendulum clock. Since he was blind, Galileo described the device to his son, who drew a sketch of it.
  • Galileo and the pendulum clock
    Jul 8, 2009 – At the end of his life he devised a scheme for using a pendulum to regulate a mechanical clock. However, the first reliable pendulum clock was only demonstrated by Huygens 15 years after Galileo’s death. Vincenzo Vivani became Galileo’s assistant in 1639. He went on become an important mathematician in his own right.
  • The Galileo Project | Science | Pendulum Clock
    Pendulum Clock … His first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani, states that he began his study of … Galileo’s discovery was that the period of swing of a pendulum is …
  • Galileo Pendulum Clock Model, Replica | National Museum of …
    After decades of experiments with the pendulum, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) conceived of a pendulum clock that could be used to determine longitude at sea. Near the end of his life, blind and in failing health, he discussed the design with his son Vincenzio and his biographer Vincenzo Viviani.
  • Galileo’s Pendulum clock designed by Galileo (c.1642) and made by …
    Image: Galileo’s Pendulum clock designed by Galileo (c.1642) and made by his son in 1649 … was the most fundamental advance in the history of time measurement. The pendulum was partly constructed by Galileo’s son Vincenzio in 1649.

Roman Commercial Bakeries

Romans developed commercial bakeries in 200 BCE. A bakery was unearthed in the ruins of Pompeii containing the remains of bakes loaves.

Date:
      200 BCE
Location:
      Pompeii, Italy


Additional Information:

  • Cura Annonae – Wikipedia
    In ancient Rome, the Roman government used the term Cura Annonae in honour of their … By the late 200s BCE, grain was being shipped to the city of Rome from Sicily and Sardinia. …. and then either baked the flour into bread at a home oven, a communal oven, or one of the numerous bakeries in every district of the city.
  • Food and dining in the Roman Empire – Wikipedia
    Food and dining in the Roman Empire reflect both the variety of foodstuffs available through the …. Mills and commercial ovens, usually combined in a bakery complex, were considered so vital to the wellbeing of ….. to Roman territorial expansion, dating the introduction of the first chefs to 187 BC, following the Galatian War.
  • The Economy of the Early Roman Empire – American Economic …
    I focus on the early Roman Empire, which followed the Roman Republic in … Empire that began around 200 CE, when the failings of Imperial control led to ….. men for commercial agents because they could act as agents for land owners … miserable condition of slaves working in the bakery overseen by Apuleius’ golden.
  • Bakers and the Baking Trade in the Roman Empire: Social and …
    Pistor Redemptor: Eurysaces and the Baking Trade in Rome. …. intervention, the bulk of this evidence, as we shall see, postdates the introduction of the bread dole in the third century CE. …. 200: quom a pistore panem petimus; Bacch. 781 …

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (/pæˈskæl, pɑːˈskɑːl/; French: [blɛz paskal]; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal’s earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalising the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defence of the scientific method.

In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and 50 prototypes, he built 20 finished machines (called Pascal’s calculators and later Pascalines) over the following 10 years, establishing him as one of the first two inventors of the mechanical calculator.

More info at: Blaise Pascal – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Blaise Pascal
Occupation:
      Mathematician, Physicist, Inventor, Writer and Catholic Theologian
Birth:
      June 19, 1623, Clermont-Ferrand, France
Death:
      August 19, 1662, Paris, France


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Genetically Engineered Tobacco Plants

The U.S. Department of Agriculture approved genetically engineered high-yield tobacco plants for outdoor testing in 1986.

Date:
      1986
Location:
      USA


Additional Information:

Callimachus of Cyrene

Callimachus (/kæˈlɪməkəs/; Greek: Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya. He was a poet, critic and scholar at the Library of Alexandria and enjoyed the patronage of the Egyptian–Greek Pharaohs Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy III Euergetes. Although, he was never made chief librarian, he was responsible for producing a bibliographic survey based upon the contents of the Library. This, his Pinakes, 120 volumes long, provided the foundation for later work on the history of ancient Greek literature. He is among the most productive and influential scholar-poets of the Hellenistic age.

More info at: Callimachus – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Callimachus
Occupation:
      Poet, Critic and Scholar
Birth:
      310 BC, Cyrene
Death:
      240 BC, Alexandria, Egypt


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