During the Roman era, lanterns made of clay with an opening at the front, this enabled people to take lights (oil or candle) outside. These types of lanterns were superseded by metal lanterns with horn windows. Many examples of these lanterns have been found at Pompeii and Herculaneum in the southern part of Italy.
Pompeii and Herculaneum
- Oil lamp: Early Roman – Wikipedia
Production of oil-lamps shifted to Italy as the main source of supply. Molds used. All lamps are closed in type.
- Ancient Roman Pottery Lamps – Wikipedia
Artificial lighting was commonplace in the Roman world. Candles, made from beeswax or tallow, were undoubtedly the cheapest means of lighting, but candles seldom survive archaeologically. Lamps fueled with olive oil and other vegetable oils survive in great numbers, however, and have been studied in minute detail.
- History of Lanterns PDF
Mankind’s earliest sources of light depended on what was available as it evolved over
the years. When ancient men were living in caves, a form of light source was to burn handfuls of moss, soaked in animal fat, in hallowed out rocks; ancient African societies burned oily nuts in clay saucers