Arabic writings of the 9th Century first mention horizontal windmills constructed around 644 CE. A Persian Millwright by the name of Abu Lu’lu’a who lived on the Iran-Afghanistan border is also mentioned.
Based on the watermill construction, these windmills used same principles. Mounted Horizontally, the sails radiating from a vertical axial, with the mill stones mounted above. When the wind blew, the sail would turn the vertical axial and in turn, turn the mill stones.
- Windmill – Wikipedia
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain, pump water, or both.
- What is the early history of windmills? | Reference.com
Some historians believe that vertical-axis windmills were first constructed in Persia between A.D. 500 and 900 to assist in the tasks of grinding grain and pumping water.
- Early History Through 1875 – TelosNet
The history of wind power shows a general evolution from the use of simple, light devices driven by aerodynamic drag forces; to heavy, material-intensive drag devices; to the increased use of light, material-efficient aerodynamic lift devices in the modern era.
- Wind Energy Foundation | History of Wind Energy
Since early recorded history, people have harnessed the energy of the wind. Wind energy propelled boats along the Nile River as early as 5000 B.C. By 200 B.C., simple windmills in China were pumping water, while vertical-axis windmills with woven reed sails were grinding grain in Persia and the Middle East.
- windmill facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about …
A windmill is a structure or machine that converts wind into usable energy through the rotation of a wheel made up of adjustable blades. Traditionally, the energy generated by a windmill has been used to grind grain into flour. Windmills are designed by skilled craftsmen and can be constructed on site using hand tools.