The Cultivation of the Avocado

Avocado comes from the Aztec word “ahuactal” or “Tree Testicle”. Now thats a funny translation of the word Avocado. George’s goal was to produce an avocado tree that could produce fruit that was uniform in size and shape.

Date: Circa 1900
Name(s): George Cullen
Occupation: American horticulturist
Location: Florida, USA


Additional Information:

  • Avocado – Wikipedia
    The avocado tree does not tolerate freezing temperatures, and can be grown only in subtropical or tropical climates. Several cold-hardy varieties are planted in the region of Gainesville, Florida, which survive temperatures as low as −6.5 °C (20 °F) with only minor leaf damage.
  • Learn How To Grow Your Own Avocado Tree from Seed
    Wash it. Use 3 toothpicks to suspend it broad-end down over a water-filled glass to cover about an inch of the seed. Put the glass in a warm place out of direct sunlight and replenish water as needed. You should see the roots and stem start to sprout in about 2-6 weeks.
  • Avocado Fruit Farming Information Guide | Agrifarming.in
    The Slow Spread of the Avocado. … Sir Hans Sloane, an Irish naturalist, is believed to have coined the word “avocado” in 1696, when he mentioned the plant in a catalogue of Jamaican plants. He also called it the “alligator pear-tree.” Henry Perrine, a horticulturist, first planted avocados in Florida in 1833.
  • A Brief History of the Avocado – AvoSeedo
    The word “avocado” is believed to be derived from the Nahuatl word ahuacatl, which means “testicle” and obviously describes the shape of the fruit. It also likely refers to the fact that the believed the avocado to be an aphrodisiac.
  • Avocado Origins: A Brief History of Avocado – CureJoy
    Though discovered by the Spanish only in the 15th century, avocado was used by the Mesoamericans since 5000 BC. This aphrodisiac fruit from south Central Mexico was used by the Incas in Peru and sold in Mexican markets.

Prison reformer of note

English philanthropist John Howard, when he becoming high sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1773, he toured the local jail. He found it appallingly unhealthy, and learned that prisoners were forced to pay their own jailers, those unable to pay the discharge fee were kept, even those whose cases were acquitted. In 1974 he got the House of Commons passed prison reform acts that abolished discharge fees and required justices to oversee the health of prisoners. Then in 1777 Howard wrote the reformist tract State of the Prisons.

Date:
      1773, 1774, 1777
Name(s):
      John Howard
Occupation:
      Philanthropist
      High Sheriff
Location:
      Bedfordshire

Additional Information:

  • John Howard (prison reformer) – Wikipedia
    John Howard FRS (2 September 1726 – 20 January 1790) was a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
  • Prison reform – Wikipedia
    Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.
  • Elizabeth Fry – Wikipedia
    Elizabeth Fry (née Gurney, often referred to as Betsy; 21 May 1780 – 12 October 1845) was an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the “angel of prisons”.

Limes in the New World

In 1493 it is thought Christopher Columbus’s Voyage number two, brought seeds of several verities of citrus, Continue reading

Milled money… Automation of a coin press

In Italy circa 1500, Leonardo da Vinci invented a Mill-driven coin press. This water driven press was able to produce more uniform coins, the coins were coined as “milled money.” (get the pun…LOL) The concept was adopted throughout Europe over the next two centuries.

Date:
      1500
Name(s):
      Leonardo da Vinci
Occupation:
      Artist,
      Inventor,
      Visionairy

Additional Information:

  • Leonardo da Vinci – Wikipedia
    Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian: [leoˈnardo di ˌsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃi] ( listen); 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
  • Milled coinage – Wikipedia
    In numismatics, the term milled coinage (also known as machine-struck coinage) is used to describe coins which are produced by some form of machine, rather than by manually hammering coin blanks between two dies (hammered coinage) or casting coins from dies.
  • Coining technology — Part 3: Machine mintage of testons and thalers …
    At the end of the XV century — early XVI century Europe saw the rise of trade relations with the sharp increase in cash flow. At the same time begins the influx of a large amount of silver from America, where the Spaniards discovered rich deposits.

Halftone photo of Prince Arthur in Canadian Illustrated News

The first issue of Canadian Illustrated News featured a halftone photograph of Queen Victoria’s son, Prince Arthur on October 30th 1869. Continue reading

Crimean War receive extensive newspaper coverage

The Crimean War (1853-56), was the first war to receive extensive newspaper coverage. Continue reading

Paul Anthony Samuelson, first North American to receive Nobel Prize in Economics

First North America presented the Nobel Prize in Economics was in 1970
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First International Congress of Archivists Meeting

The International Council on Archives, (which was founded in 1948), hosted the International Congress of Archivists held in Paris, France, in 1950. Continue reading

Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Bernhardt (French: [sa.ʁa bɛʁ.nɑʁt]; 22 or 23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th century, including La Dame Aux Camelias by Alexandre Dumas, fils, Ruy Blas by Victor Hugo, Fédora and La Tosca by Victorien Sardou, and L’Aiglon by Edmond Rostand. She also played male roles, including Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Continue reading

Fields Medal, is a Mathematician’s Nobel Prize.

The Fields Medal was the will of a Canadian born, research mathematician of the University of Toronto, by the name of John Charles Fields. Continue reading