Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (ابوبكر محمّد زکرياى رازى Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine. He also wrote on logic, astronomy and grammar.
A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered for numerous advances in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Ray hospitals. As a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor.
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911), he was among the first to use humoral theory to distinguish one contagious disease from another, and wrote a pioneering book about smallpox and measles providing clinical characterization of the diseases. He also discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and sulfuric acid, among others.
Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely “On Surgery” and “A General Book on Therapy”, became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities. Edward Granville Browne considers him as “probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author”. Additionally, he has been described as a doctor’s doctor, the father of pediatrics, and a pioneer of ophthalmology. For example, he was the first to recognize the reaction of the eye’s pupil to light.
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Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī
Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher
854 AD, Ray, Iran
October 15, 925 AD, Ray, Iran
- Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi – Wikipedia
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine. He also wrote on logic, astronomy and grammar. A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he …
- Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts: Al-Razi, the Clinician
The section on gastrointestinal diseases from The Comprehensive Book on Medicine (Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb) composed in Arabic by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya’ al-Razi (d. ca 925/312 H). Copy finished on 30 November 1094 (19 Dhu al-Qa`dah 487 H) by an unnamed scribe probably working in Baghdad. NLM MS …
- al-Razi | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
Mar 29, 2018 – Al-Rāzī, in full Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī, Latin Rhazes, (born c. 854, Rayy, Persia [now in Iran]—died 925/935, Rayy), celebrated alchemist and Muslim philosopher who is also considered to have been the greatest physician of the Islamic world. One tradition holds that al-Rāzī was …
- Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi – Jewish Virtual Library
Razi wrote on many different subjects. His general medical textbook, Kitab al-Mansuri fi al-tibb (The Book of Medicine for Mansur) was written for the Samanid ruler of Rayy, Abu Salih al-Mansur. His voluminous working files of readings and personal observations were assembled posthumously by his students and …
- Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi – The Living Moon
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Zakariā-ye Rāzi: Persian: زكريای رازی), known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists, (August 26 865, Rayy – 925, Rayy) was a Persian alchemist, chemist, physician, philosopher and scholar. He is recognised as a polymath and often referred as “probably the greatest and …
- al-Razi Facts – Biography – YourDictionary
al-Razi Facts. The Persian physician al-Razi (ca. 865-925), also known as Rhazes, prepared compilations that were influential in Western medicine for centuries. His monograph on smallpox and measles is still considered a medical classic. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi was born at Ray, a city not far from …