Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (/ˈlaɪbnɪts/; German: [ˈɡɔtfʁiːt ˈvɪlhɛlm fɔn ˈlaɪbnɪts] or [ˈlaɪpnɪts]; French: Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz; 1 July, 1646 [O.S. 21 June] – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics, the history of philosophy, having developed differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton. Leibniz’s notation has been widely used ever since it was published. It was only in the 20th century that his Law of Continuity and Transcendental Law of Homogeneity found mathematical implementation (by means of non-standard analysis). He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal’s calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. He also refined the binary number system, which is the foundation of virtually all digital computers.
In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, i.e. his conclusion that our Universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created, an idea that was often lampooned by others such as Voltaire. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th-century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or prior definitions rather than to empirical evidence.
Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in philosophy, probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics, and computer science. He wrote works on philosophy, politics, law, ethics, theology, history, and philology. Leibniz also contributed to the field of library science. While serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloguing system that would serve as a guide for many of Europe’s largest libraries. Leibniz’s contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, but primarily in Latin, French, and German. There is no complete written collection of Leibniz translated into English.
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Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
1 July 1646
Electorate of Saxony
Holy Roman Empire
14 November 1716
Electorate of Hanover
Holy Roman Empire
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Wikipedia
Gottfried Leibniz was born on 1 July 1646, toward the end of the Thirty Years’ War, in Leipzig, Saxony, to Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina Schmuck.
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz | German philosopher and mathematician …
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, (born July 1 [June 21, Old Style], 1646, Leipzig [Germany]—died November 14, 1716, Hannover, Hanover), German philosopher, mathematician, and political adviser, important both as a metaphysician and as a logician and distinguished also for his independent invention of the differential and integral calculus.
- Leibniz, Gottfried: Metaphysics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The German rationalist philosopher, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), is one of the great renaissance men of Western thought. He has made significant contributions in several fields spanning the intellectual landscape, including mathematics, physics, logic, ethics, and theology.
- Leibniz biography – University of St Andrews
Gottfried Leibniz was the son of Friedrich Leibniz, a professor of moral philosophy at Leipzig
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was one of the great thinkers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and is known as the last “universal genius”.
- Leibniz – 17th Century Mathematics – The Story of Mathematics
The German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz occupies a grand place in the history of philosophy.
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Leibniz was one of the great philosophers of the age of Rationalism and the last major philosopher who was also a first rate, indeed a great, mathematician.
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (also Leibnitz or von Leibniz) (1646 – 1716) was a German philosopher, mathematician, scientist and polymath of the Age of Reason.