Caliph Abu Bakr Succeeded Muhammad

Caliph Abu Bakr was named khalifat rasul Allah ("successor of the prophet of God") following the death of Muhammad on June 8, 632 by Medina Muslims. Continue reading

China Had First Pawn Shops

Pawn shops existed in ancient China in 1000 BCE and various Mediterranean civilization in 600 BCE. Continue reading

Hot Air Balloon Uses Flight Instruments

John Jeffries, an American balloonist carried a flight instrument, a barometer during his voyage over London, England in 1784. Continue reading

British Invented the Diving Suit

Englishman, John Lethbridge invented the first diving suit in 1715. Continue reading

Islam Recognized Religious Minorities

Islam tolerated minor religious Christian and Jewish communities living near Jordan, Saudi Arabia in 630 as the Muslims required pagans to convert to islam or risk being killed. Continue reading

China Population Reached 1 Billion

China’s population reached 1 billion people in 1987. Continue reading

Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان‎, Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

Muawiyah was appointed as the Governor of Syria after his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan died. During the time of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muawiyah convinced Talha and Zubayr to revolt against Ali. This led to the Battle of the Camel, the first battle in the First Fitna (the first Islamic civil war). In 657, Muawiya’s army attacked the army of Ali at the Battle of Siffin. After the death of Ali in 661, Muawiya’s army approached that of Ali’s son and successor, Hasan ibn Ali. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Hasan signed a peace treaty with Muawiyah. Muawiyah then assumed power; however, Muawiyah ended up breaking all his requirements set out by the peace treaty.

More info at: Muawiyah I – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan
Occupation:
      Founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
Birth:
      602 AD, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Death:
      680 AD, Damascus, Syria


Additional Information:

Rail Wheeled Cart Used in Germany

The first known wheeled carts to use rails was in Germany in 1430 as mine carts running on wooden rails. Continue reading

Great Britain Issued a Third World Loan

Great Britain issued a billion pound Third World Loan in 1917 to pay for World War I expenses following a six week fundraiser. Continue reading

Muhammad Incorporates Arab Tribes into Islamic Federation

Muhammad led his followers on raids against neighboring Arab tribes and incorporating them into the Islamic federation following his flee from Continue reading