Islamic civil war erupted upon the assassination of the third caliph Uthman ibn Affan, in 656 by Egyptian soldiers. The caliph succeeded by Muhammad’s son-in-law and scribe, Ali ibn Abi Talib following a battlefield challenge by A’ishah, Muhammad’s widow, and by Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, the governor of Damascus that lasted until 661. Ali was assassinated and Muawiyah became caliph. In Islamic history, this was the first fitnah, or test.
- Uthman – Wikipedia
Uthman ibn Affan also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman (579 … When Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab died in office aged 59/60 years, ʿUthmān, aged 64/65 years, succeeded him and was the second-oldest to rule as Caliph. Uthman was married to Ruqayyah, and upon her death, married Umm …
- Siege of Uthman – Wikipedia
Uthman Ibn Affan, the third Rashidun caliph, was assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house. Initially a protest, the siege escalated following an …
- Uthman ibn Affan | Biography, Achievements, & Assassination …
ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān, (died June 17, 656, Medina, Arabian Peninsula), third caliph to rule after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. He centralized the administration of the caliphate and established an official version of the Qurʾān.
- Caliph Uthman Murdered | History Today
Richard Cavendish describes how Caliph Uthman was murdered on June 16th … new caliph passed over Ali and selected a seventy-year-old, Uthman ibn Affan, …
- Uthman: The Victim of a Wrongful Assassination | Arab News
Jul 28, 2003 – Ali sent his two sons (to keep guard at the Caliph’s place). The rebels said … I looked up and saw the man to be Uthman ibn Affan.” This Hadith …