The first Islamic sectarian controversy arose during the Muslim civil war following the assassination of third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan in 656 leading to the Battle of Siffin in 657 in Saudi Arabia. The conflict between Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib and his challenger, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan were sent to an arbitration panel believing Wahb al-Rasibi’s teachings were contrary to Muhammad’s teaching in the Qur’an leading to the formation of the Kharijites. The believe held the literal interpretation of the Qur’an was the ultimate authority of all actions, demanded the death penalty for any Muslim who committed a grave sin, and rejected illegitimates in other Muslim sects.
Uthman ibn Affan
- Non-denominational Muslim – Wikipedia
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination. Sectarian controversies have a long and complex history in Islam, and they …
- Sectarian violence among Muslims – Wikipedia
Sectarian violence among Muslims is the ongoing conflict between Muslims of different sects, most commonly Shias and Sunnis, although the fighting extends to smaller, more specific branches within these sects, as well as Sufism. It has been documented as having gone on from Islam’s beginnings up until …. This incident marks the first sectarian violence since protests …
- Criticism of Islam – Wikipedia
Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam’s formative stages. Early written disapproval came …… The issue of slavery in the Islamic world in modern times is controversial. Critics argue there is hard evidence of its existence …… The Sectarian Milieu: Content and Composition of Islamic Salvation History. ^ Berg, Herbert (2000).
- The Sunni-Shia Divide – Council on Foreign Relations
Nov 6, 2017 – Sectarian conflict is becoming entrenched in a growing number of Muslim … A group of prominent early followers of Islam elected Abu Bakr, … by the “guardianship of the jurist” (velayat-e faqih), a controversial concept among …
- The Origins Of The Shiite-Sunni Split : Parallels : NPR
Feb 12, 2007 – The division between Islam’s Shiite minority and the Sunni majority is … In light of the current fighting in Iraq, which is along sectarian lines, NPR is republishing the series. … “There was a dispute in the community of Muslims in present-day … The Sunnis prevailed and chose a successor to be the first caliph.