Enrico Fermi (Italian: [enˈriːko ˈfermi]; 29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian–American physicist and the creator of the world’s first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the “architect of the nuclear age” and the “architect of the atomic bomb”. He was one of very few physicists to excel in both theoretical physics and experimental physics. Fermi held several patents related to the use of nuclear power, and was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity by neutron bombardment and for the discovery of transuranium elements. He made significant contributions to the development of statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and nuclear and particle physics.
Fermi’s first major contribution involved the field of statistical mechanics. After Wolfgang Pauli formulated his exclusion principle in 1925, Fermi followed with a paper in which he applied the principle to an ideal gas, employing a statistical formulation now known as Fermi–Dirac statistics. Today, particles that obey the exclusion principle are called “fermions”. Pauli later postulated the existence of an uncharged invisible particle emitted along with an electron during beta decay, to satisfy the law of conservation of energy. Fermi took up this idea, developing a model that incorporated the postulated particle, which he named the “neutrino”. His theory, later referred to as Fermi’s interaction and now called weak interaction, described one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. Through experiments inducing radioactivity with the recently discovered neutron, Fermi discovered that slow neutrons were more easily captured by atomic nuclei than fast ones, and he developed the Fermi age equation to describe this. After bombarding thorium and uranium with slow neutrons, he concluded that he had created new elements. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery, the new elements were later revealed to be nuclear fission products.
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September 29, 1901, Rome, Italy
November 28, 1954, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Nobel Prize in Physics, Hughes Medal, Max Planck Medal, Franklin Medal, Matteucci Medal, Rumford Prize
Sapienza University of Rome, University of Florence,
- Enrico Fermi – Wikipedia
Enrico Fermi was an Italian–American physicist and the creator of the world’s first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the “architect of the …
- Enrico Fermi – Biographical – NobelPrize.org
Enrico Fermi. Biographical. Enrico Fermi was born in Rome on 29th September, 1901, the son of Alberto Fermi, a Chief Inspector of the Ministry of …
- Enrico Fermi | Italian-American physicist | Britannica
Enrico Fermi, (born Sept. … 28, 1954, Chicago, Ill., U.S.), Italian-born American scientist who was one of the chief architects of the nuclear age. … He was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize for Physics, and the Enrico Fermi Award of the U.S. Department of Energy is given in his honour.
- Enrico Fermi | Atomic Heritage Foundation
Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) was an Italian physicist and recipient of the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1942, Fermi relocated to the Chicago Met Lab, where he …
- Enrico Fermi | Biography | atomicarchive.com
Enrico Fermi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938 . He led the Manhattan Project’s effort to create the first man-made and self-sustaining nuclear chain
- Enrico Fermi – MagLab
Enrico Fermi was a titan of twentieth-century physics.
- Enrico Fermi – Physicist – Biography
Apr 27, 2017 – Learn more about how Enrico Fermi discovered nuclear fission leading to the atomic bomb, and his reluctance to develop the hydrogen bomb, …
- Enrico Fermi – Wikiquote
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian physicist, most noted for his work on beta decay, the development of the first nuclear …
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Just over 75 years ago, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted a famous nuclear experiment beneath the University of Chicago’s football field on December 2, 1942
- Enrico Fermi – Columbia 250 – Columbia University
“It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge.” Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) Physicist Faculty, 1939-42.