Invention of Hydraulic Mortar

English civil engineer John Smeaton formulated the hydraulic mortar while experimenting with underwater mortar mixtures in 1756, for the third rebuilding of the Eddystone Lighthouse. The best recipe was powdered limestone mixed with clay.

      John Smeaton
      civil engineer

Additional Information:

  • History of lime in mortar | Graymont
    Lime/sand mortars hardened at a slow rate and would not harden under water. The Romans created hydraulic mortars that contained lime and a pozzolan such as brick dust or volcanic ash. … In 1756, James Smeaton developed perhaps the first hydraulic lime product by calcining Blue Lias limestone containing clay.
  • Mortar (masonry) – Wikipedia
    Mortar is a workable paste which dries to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and … Hydraulic mortar was not available in ancient China, possibly due to a lack of volcanic ash. … It was invented in 1794 by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 December 1824, largely as a result of efforts to develop stronger mortars.
  • Cement – Wikipedia
    A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to … The chemical process for hydraulic cement was found by ancient Romans who used volcanic ash (pozzolana) with added lime (calcium oxide). The word … 1 Chemistry. 1.1 Non-hydraulic cement; 1.2 Hydraulic cement. 2 History.
    Oct 15, 2015 – Among the notable discoveries were Smeaton’s discovery of hydraulic lime in 1756, Joseph Aspdin’ s development of portland cement in 1824, …
  • overview of mortars for canadian historic structures – Canada … [PDF]
    types are lime mortars, hydraulic lime mortars, and Portland cement/masonry … a particular masonry cement has a proven performance record under the climatic.

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