United States Steel Company, a Corporation worth US$1 Billion

In 1901 a financier by the name John Pierpont Morgan created a Billion dollar company by combining several Steel mills (including Carnegie Steel and Federal Steel Company) in to one big company called, United States Steel Company. Continue reading

Electric Arc Furnace Invented

Paul-Louis Toussaint Heroult created the Electric Arc Furnace (Heated by a carbon arc at very high temp.) in France. At first it was used to melt scrap iron, then later in the Hall-Heroult process, the electrolytic refinement process of aluminum.

Date: 1900
Name(s): Paul-Louis Toussaint Heroult
Occupation: French Metallurgist
Location: France


Additional Information:

  • Electric arc furnace – Wikipedia
    ndustrial arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately one ton capacity (used in foundries for producing cast iron products) up to about 400 ton units used for secondary steelmaking.
  • When was the electric arc furnace invented?
    The German-born British inventor Sir William Siemens first demonstrated the arc furnace in 1879 at the Paris Exposition by melting iron in crucibles. In this furnace, horizontally placed carbon electrodes produced an electric arc above the container of metal.
  • What does electric arc furnace do?
    Steel scrap (or other ferrous material) is first tipped into the EAF from an overhead crane. A lid is then swung into position over the furnace. This lid contains electrodes which are lowered into the furnace. An electric current is passed through the electrodes to form an arc.
  • Steel History From Iron Age to Electric Arc Furnaces – The Balance
    The development of steel can be traced back 4000 years to the beginning of the Iron Age. Proving to be harder and stronger than bronze, which had previously been the most widely used metal, iron began to displace bronze in weaponry and tools.
  • Electric Arc Furnace | Industrial Efficiency Technology & Measures
    Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs) are a central part of the production route that is an alternative to the dominant BF-BOF route. EAFs are used to produce carbon steels and alloy steels primarily by recycling ferrous scrap.

Water powered sawmill used in marble cutting

Gallic born latin poet by the name of Decimus Magnus Ausonious, described a stone cutting water powered mill in his lyric poem about the Mosella (Moselle) river in Gaul (now France), written circa 360. This water powered mill was cutting marble for the city of Treves. Mills of this type may have been used throughout the roman empire for several hundred years.

Date:
      Circa 360 CE

Name(s):
      Decimus Magnus Ausonious

Occupation:
      Poet


Additional Information:

  • Hierapolis sawmill – Wikipedia
    The Hierapolis sawmill is believed to be a Roman water-powered stone sawmill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). Dating to the second half of the 3rd century AD, the sawmill is considered the earliest known machine to combine a crank with a connecting rod, although neither clear ancient scripts nor engineering drawings were yet found to support this theory.
  • Sawmill – Wikipedia
    A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Before the invention of the sawmill, boards were made in various manual ways, either rived (split) and planed, hewn, or more often hand sawn by two men with a whipsaw, one above and another in a saw pit below.
  • Roman Mills (Article) – Ancient History Encyclopedia
    The Romans constructed mills for use in agriculture, mining and construction. Around the 3rd century BCE, the first mills were used to grind grain.
  • 23 – Society for the History of Medieval Technology and Science
    Showing a picture of the Villard saw (ill. 1) he described it as the earliest drawing we had of a semi-automatic tool (alluding to the feed back mechanism which advanced the timber to the blade) but not the earliest known such saw, one being recorded at Evreux in 1204.
  • Ancient Roman Industrial Watermills – YouTube

Patent for a Steam Forge Hammer

Inventor James Nasmyth of Manchester, England, applied for a patent (in 1842) for a Steam Forge Hammer. As they say “Inventions / innovations are born out of nessecity”… Continue reading

William Henry “Bill” Gates III

William Henry “Bill” Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, and philanthropist. Continue reading

Hero of Alexandria

Hero of Alexandria (Greek: Ἥρων[1] ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a Greek mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt. Continue reading

Vending machines before Jesus’s birth really

Hero of Alexandria described a Vending machine circa 100 BCE. He spotted a coin-operated device that dispensed holy water in an Egyptian temple.

Additional Information:

  • Hero of Alexandria – Wikipedia
    Much of Hero’s original writings and designs have been lost, but some of his works were preserved in Arabic manuscripts.
  • Heron of Alexandria | Greek mathematician | Britannica.com
    Heron of Alexandria, also called Hero (flourished c. ad 62, Alexandria, Egypt), Greek geometer and inventor whose writings preserved for posterity a knowledge of the mathematics and engineering of Babylonia, ancient Egypt, and the Greco-Roman world.
  • The ancient invention of the steam engine by the Hero of Alexandria …
    In our society today we are often surprised and impressed by the advancement of technology and engineering, a major characteristic of our civilisation. However if we look back more than 2,000 years ago, we can find mechanical marvels and incredible feats of engineering that were ahead of their time. Many became lost to the pages of history, only to become reinvented just a few centuries ago. This includes the first modern of the steam engine.
  • Heron Of Alexandria – Mathematician Biography, Facts and Pictures
    Many Greek scientists were known by the name Heron or Hero however the multi-faceted mathematician, scientist, inventor and engineer mentioned here is the ‘Heron of Alexandria’ who was born in 20 AD. He specialized in the fields of mechanics, mathematics and physics representing the works of the Hellenistic tradition in Science.
Date:
      100 BCE
Name(s):
      Hero of Alexandria
Occupation:
      Greek Mathematician, Engineer, and Inventor


Trade during the Han dynasty

China and Southeast Asia initiated trade, during the Han dynasty, circa 100 CE. (Northern part of what is now Vietnam) Continue reading

International trade fairs still held annually

Fairs of Germany’s medieval cities which include those of Leipzig, begun in 1229; Frankfurt am Main, in 1240 (and perhaps as early as 1050); and Cologne, in 1360, all still hold annually international trade fairs. Continue reading

Hostels for Pilgrims

The first hostels for pilgrims were in operation in Israel for Jewish men who would make their 3 times a year pilgrimage to the Beit ha-Mikdash (a Temple in Jerusalem). Continue reading