Muhammad First Mosque

Muhammad built the Prophet’s Mosque between 622-634 in his Medina, Saudi Arabia backyard. Continue reading

Abu Bakr was First Islamic Convert

Abu Bakr the father-in-law of Muhammad was Islam’s first convert in 622. Continue reading

Muhammad Established the Salah

Muhammad established the Muslim prayer ritual, the salah in 622, consisting of statements of faith, recitations from the Qur'an, and a sequence of postures, including standing, bowing, sitting, and prostration. Continue reading

Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: c.321–c. 297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India. He was born in a humble family, orphaned and abandoned, raised as a son by another pastoral family, was picked up, taught and counselled by Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra. Chandragupta thereafter built one of the largest empires ever on the Indian subcontinent. According to Jain sources, he then renounced it all, and became a monk in the Jain tradition. Chandragupta is claimed, by the historic Jain texts, to have followed Jainism in his life, by first renouncing all his wealth and power, going away with Jaina monks into the Deccan region (now Karnataka), and ultimately performing Sallekhana – the Jain religious ritual of peacefully welcoming death by fasting.[note 2] His grandson was emperor Ashoka, famous for his historic pillars and for his role in helping spread Buddhism outside of ancient India. Chandragupta’s life and accomplishments are described in ancient Hindu, Buddhist and Greek texts, but they vary significantly in details from the Jaina accounts. Megasthenes served as a Greek ambassador in his court for four years. In Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrokottos (Greek: Σανδροκόττος), Sandrakottos (Greek: Σανδράκοττος) and Androcottus (Greek: Ανδροκόττος).
Chandragupta Maurya was a pivotal figure in the history of India. Prior to his consolidation of power, Alexander the Great had invaded the northwest Indian subcontinent, then abandoned further campaigning in 324 BCE, leaving a legacy of Indian subcontinental regions ruled by Indo-Greek and local rulers.[19] The region was divided into Mahajanapadas, while the Nanda Empire dominated the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Chandragupta, with the counsel of his Chief Minister Chanakya (the Brahmin also known as Kautilya), created a new empire, applied the principles of statecraft, built a large army and continued expanding the boundaries of his empire. Greek rulers such as Seleucus I Nicator avoided war with him, entered into a marriage alliance instead, and retreated into Persia. Chandragupta’s empire extended from Bengal to most of the Indian subcontinent, except the southernmost regions (now Tamil Nadu, Kerala and nearby) and Kalinga (now Odisha region).
After unifying much of India, Chandragupta and Chanakya passed a series of major economic and political reforms. He established a strong central administration from Pataliputra (now Patna), patterned after Chanakya’s text on governance and politics, the Arthashastra. Chandragupta’s India was characterised by an efficient and highly organised structure. The empire built infrastructure such as irrigation, temples, mines and roads, leading to a strong economy. With internal and external trade thriving and agriculture flourishing, the empire built a large and trained permanent army to help expand and protect its boundaries. Chandragupta’s reign, as well the dynasty that followed him, was an era when many religions thrived in India, with Buddhism, Jainism and Ajivika gaining prominence along with the Brahmanism traditions. A memorial to Chandragupta Maurya exists on the Chandragiri hill, along with a 7th-century hagiographic inscription, on one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola, Karnakata.

More info at: Chandragupta Maurya – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Chandragupta Maurya
Occupation:
      1st Mauryan Emperor
Reign:
      c. 321 – c. 297 BCE
Coronation:
      c. 321 BCE
Birth:
      c. 340 BCE

      Pipphalivana near Pataliputra and Ramagrama or Devdaha, close to Magadha (modern-day Nepal and Patna, Bihar)
Death:
      297 BCE

    Shravanabelagola, Karnataka (Jain legend)
Spouse:
      Durdhara


Additional Information:

Islam Recognized Religious Minorities

Islam tolerated minor religious Christian and Jewish communities living near Jordan, Saudi Arabia in 630 as the Muslims required pagans to convert to islam or risk being killed. Continue reading

Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان‎, Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

Muawiyah was appointed as the Governor of Syria after his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan died. During the time of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muawiyah convinced Talha and Zubayr to revolt against Ali. This led to the Battle of the Camel, the first battle in the First Fitna (the first Islamic civil war). In 657, Muawiya’s army attacked the army of Ali at the Battle of Siffin. After the death of Ali in 661, Muawiya’s army approached that of Ali’s son and successor, Hasan ibn Ali. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Hasan signed a peace treaty with Muawiyah. Muawiyah then assumed power; however, Muawiyah ended up breaking all his requirements set out by the peace treaty.

More info at: Muawiyah I – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan
Occupation:
      Founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
Birth:
      602 AD, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Death:
      680 AD, Damascus, Syria


Additional Information:

Islamic Revivalist Reform Movement In Persia

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, an Arabian theologian launched the Islamic revivalist reform movement in 1736. Continue reading

Assassination of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan

Islamic civil war erupted upon the assassination of the third caliph Uthman ibn Affan, in 656 by Egyptian soldiers. Continue reading

King Chandragupta Maurya Converts to Jainism

The first emperor of India, King Chandragupta Maurya converted to Jainism following his Indian conquest and reigned from 321 to 297 BCE. Continue reading

Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (/ˈɡuːtənbɜːrɡ/;[1] c. 1400 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, inventor, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. Continue reading