Invention of a Spirit Level

The spirit level was invented by Melchisedech Thevenot in France, in 1660. Following correspondence with Dutch Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens, Thevenot published the device description in 1681.

Date:
      1660
Name(s):
      Melchisedech Thevenot, Christiaan Huygens
Occupation:
      Inventor
Location:
      Netherlands, France


Additional Information:

  • Spirit level – Wikipedia
    Melchisédech Thévenot, a French scientist, invented the instrument some time before February 2, 1661. This date can be established from Thevenot’s correspondence with scientist Christiaan Huygens.
  • Christian Huygens: The Measurement of Time and of Longitude at
    From the very beginning of Christiaan Huygens’ career as a mathematician and natural … In the spirit of Archimedes he insisted that his magnum opus, the Horologium … Commenting on the many rival claims to have invented the pendulum clock, … format of intricate watches, they have reached a high level of sophistication.
  • History of the Bubble or Spirit Level | Montgomery Slope Level Blog
    Feb 12, 2009 – Thevenot invented the instrument some time before February 2, 1661. This date can be very accurately established from Thevenot’s correspondence with scientist Christiaan Huygens.
  • How were spirit levels invented? – Quora
    Melchisédech Thévenot, a French scientist, invented the instrument some time before … from Thevenot’s correspondence with scientist Christiaan Huygens.
  • Christiaan Huygens – Famous Scientists
    In 1662 he invented the “Huygens eyepiece”, a compound eyepiece for a telescope using multiple lenses. In 1663, he was elected a member of the newly formed Royal Society which was established to improve the knowledge of science. Huygens was honored with a doctorate in 1655.

Invention of Pendulum Clock

Vincenzo Galilei, the son of Galileo invented the pendulum clock in 1641. He realized the pendulum, at regular oscillation periods would make an efficient and accurate regulator of clock movement. Vincenzio’s clock design was improved upon by Dutch mathematician and astronomer, Christiaan Huygens in 1656. The weight-driven, pendulum-regulated led to smaller and less expensive wall clocks priced for the public.

Date:
      1641
Name(s):
      Christiaan Huygens
Occupation:
      Inventor
Location:
      Italy, Netherlands


Additional Information:

  • Galileo’s escapement – Wikipedia
    Galileo’s escapement is a design for a clock escapement, invented around 1637 by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642). It was the earliest design of a pendulum clock. Since he was blind, Galileo described the device to his son, who drew a sketch of it.
  • Galileo and the pendulum clock
    Jul 8, 2009 – At the end of his life he devised a scheme for using a pendulum to regulate a mechanical clock. However, the first reliable pendulum clock was only demonstrated by Huygens 15 years after Galileo’s death. Vincenzo Vivani became Galileo’s assistant in 1639. He went on become an important mathematician in his own right.
  • The Galileo Project | Science | Pendulum Clock
    Pendulum Clock … His first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani, states that he began his study of … Galileo’s discovery was that the period of swing of a pendulum is …
  • Galileo Pendulum Clock Model, Replica | National Museum of …
    After decades of experiments with the pendulum, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) conceived of a pendulum clock that could be used to determine longitude at sea. Near the end of his life, blind and in failing health, he discussed the design with his son Vincenzio and his biographer Vincenzo Viviani.
  • Galileo’s Pendulum clock designed by Galileo (c.1642) and made by …
    Image: Galileo’s Pendulum clock designed by Galileo (c.1642) and made by his son in 1649 … was the most fundamental advance in the history of time measurement. The pendulum was partly constructed by Galileo’s son Vincenzio in 1649.

Invention of the Piston Engine

Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch scientist invented the piston engine in 1673. The design had one piston powered by gunpowder, when a small charge detonated in the cylinder, it pushed the piston and turned a crank. It was a crude internal combustion engine.

Date:
      1673
Name(s):
      Christiaan Huygens
Occupation:
      Scientist
Location:
      Dutch


Additional Information:

  • Gunpowder engine – Hmolpedia
    The first gunpowder engine, using a piston and cylinder, was invented and built in 1678 by Dutch mathematical physicist Christiaan Huygens called Huygens gunpowder and air engine.Apr 24, 2017
  • Gunpowder engine – Wikipedia
    Huygens, however, became interested in the mechanical power of the vacuum, and the possibility of using gunpowder to produce one. In 1678 he outlined a gunpowder engine consisting of a vertical tube containing a piston. Gunpowder was inserted into the tube and lit through a small hole at the base, like a cannon.
  • Gunpowder engine – WikiVisually
    A gunpowder engine, also known as an explosion engine or Huygens’ engine, is a type of internal combustion engine using gunpowder as its fuel. … Huygens presented a paper on his invention in 1680, A New Motive Power by Means …. Christiaan Huygens, FRS (or ; Dutch: [ˈɦœyɣə(n)s] (listen); Latin: Hugenius; 14 April …
  • Christiaan Huygens Biography – Space.com
    Jun 8, 2012 – Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens proposed the earliest theory … Working as an astronomer, physicist, mathematician and inventor, … Other inventions by Huygens included his design of an internal combustion engine in …