Title: Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad

Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī (Arab: أبو عبدالرحمن الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي‎; 718 – 786 CE), more commonly known as Al-Farahidi or simply Al-Khalīl, was one of the earliest Arab lexicographers and philologists. Continue reading

Cryptanalysis Treatise Written in Arabic

Cryptanalysis treatise Kitab al-mu'amma (Book of Secret Language), was written by Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad, Arabic philologist circa 750 in Basra, Iraq and author of the first Arabic dictionary. Continue reading

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoléon Bonaparte (French: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt]; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. Continue reading

A Uniform National Law Code

In 1800 by Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul of France, commissioned Code Napoleon (the Napoleonic Code), it was drafted by a council under Jean-Jacques Regis de Cambaceres. Continue reading

Louis XIV – King of France

Louis XIV (5 September 1638 - 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Continue reading

Code for the treatment of slaves in European colonies

Code Noir, or the Black Code, established in March 1685 by King Louis XIV of France was the Code for the treatment of slaves in European colonies. Continue reading

Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti (Italian: [leˈom batˈtista alˈbɛrti]; February 18, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man. Continue reading

Cipher wheel was invented circa 1466

The Italian scholar and artist Leon Battista Alberti, famed as the first Renaissance man, invented the Cipher wheel, circa 1466. Continue reading

International Code signals

Communicating between ships at sea was done by flags, an International Code signals was published in England in 1857. Continue reading