Cryptanalysis treatise Kitab al-mu'amma (Book of Secret Language), was written by Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad, Arabic philologist circa 750 in Basra, Iraq and author of the first Arabic dictionary. Continue reading
Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors’ work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles (formerly a hunting lodge belonging to Louis’ father), succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis’ minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military, and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Colbert, Louvois, the Grand CondÃ©, Turenne, and SÃ©bastien Le Prestre de Vauban, as well as MoliÃ¨re, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Marais, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles and Claude Perrault, and Le NÃ´tre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority.
More info at: Louis XIV of France – Wikipedia
Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
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Louis XIV of France
King of France
September 5, 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
September 1, 1715, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Yvelines, France
FranÃ§oise d’AubignÃ©, Marquise de Maintenon (m. 1683â€“1715), Maria Theresa of Spain (m. 1660â€“1683)
Louis, Grand Dauphin,
Louise de Maisonblanche,
Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine,
Louis, Count of Vermandois,
FranÃ§oise Marie de Bourbon,
Marie Anne de Bourbon,
Princess Anne Ã‰lisabeth of France,
Princess Marie Anne of France,
Louise Marie Anne de Bourbon,
Louise FranÃ§oise de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon,
Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse,
Marie ThÃ©rÃ¨se of France,
Louise FranÃ§oise de Bourbon, Mademoiselle du Maine,
Louis CÃ©sar, Count of Vexin,
Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou,
Louis FranÃ§ois, Duke of Anjou,
Charles de La Baume Le Blanc
- Louis XIV of France – Wikipedia
Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the ChÃ¢teau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis DieudonnÃ© (Louis the God-given) and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin.
- Louis XIV – King – Biography.com
King Louis XIV of France led an absolute monarchy during Franceâ€™s classical age. He revoked the Edict of Nantes and is known for his aggressive foreign policy.
- Who was Louis XIV of France? Everything you need to know about the …
Twenty-eight-year-old Louis, in a move to consolidate his crown, resolves to establish his seat of power outside Paris by moving his court to his father’s former hunting lodge at the Palace of Versailles, on the outskirts of of the capital.
- Louis XIV – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com
The reign of Franceâ€™s Louis XIV (1638-1718), known as the Sun King, lasted for 72 years, longer than that of any other known European sovereign.
- Louis XIV – the Sun King: Biography
Louis XIV, France’s Sun King, had the longest reign in European history (1643-1715). During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height, established a glittering court at Versailles, and fought most of the other European countries in four wars.
- Louis XIV | king of France | Britannica.com
Louis XIV, byname Louis the Great, Louis the Grand Monarch, or the Sun King, French Louis Le Grand, Louis Le Grand Monarque, or Le Roi Soleil (born September 5, 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Franceâ€”died September 1, 1715, Versailles, France), king of France (1643â€“1715) who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age.
- Death of Louis XIV, 1715 | Palace of Versailles
After a week of agonising pain, four days before his 77th birthday, Louis XIV died in Versailles just after 8.15 am on 1 September. He had been king for 72 years, the longest reign in the history of France.
- Sex, spies and the Queen’s black baby: the real history of Versailles
Period dramas are becoming increasingly raunchy â€“ from the entirely fictional Poldark to the likes of The Tudors, which is based on real events. Last week, the BBC premiered its lavish enterprise with Canal Plus, Versailles.
Leon Battista Alberti (Italian: [leˈom batˈtista alˈbɛrti]; February 18, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man. Continue reading
The Italian scholar and artist Leon Battista Alberti, famed as the first Renaissance man, invented the Cipher wheel, circa 1466. Continue reading
Communicating between ships at sea was done by flags, an International Code signals was published in England in 1857. Continue reading