Guru Arjan

Guru Arjan (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan [ɡʊru əɾdʒən]) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib.

He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib.

More info at: Guru Arjan – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Guru Arjan
Birth:
      April 15, 1563, Goindval, India
Death:
      May 30, 1606, Lahore, Pakistan
Spouse:
      Mata Ganga
Children:
      Guru Hargobind


Additional Information:

Sanskrit Didactic Verses

Upanishads are compilations of teachings written in 500 BCE by Hindu sages in a Sanskrit didactic style verse. Continue reading

First Sikh Martyr

Arjan, compiler of the Adi Granth and the builder of the Golden Temple at Amritsar, India was the first Sikh martyr. Continue reading

Sikh Temple in Amritsar was Built

The Sikh Golden Temple was built in 1604 by Guru Arjun in Amritsar, India. Continue reading

Indian Food Purity Law

The Indian statute on food purity passed in 300 BCE. Continue reading

First Sikh Book Compilation

Arjun, the fifth Sikh guru compiled the Sikh sacred book Adi Granth or Granth Sahib in 1604. Continue reading

Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: c.321–c. 297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India. He was born in a humble family, orphaned and abandoned, raised as a son by another pastoral family, was picked up, taught and counselled by Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra. Chandragupta thereafter built one of the largest empires ever on the Indian subcontinent. According to Jain sources, he then renounced it all, and became a monk in the Jain tradition. Chandragupta is claimed, by the historic Jain texts, to have followed Jainism in his life, by first renouncing all his wealth and power, going away with Jaina monks into the Deccan region (now Karnataka), and ultimately performing Sallekhana – the Jain religious ritual of peacefully welcoming death by fasting.[note 2] His grandson was emperor Ashoka, famous for his historic pillars and for his role in helping spread Buddhism outside of ancient India. Chandragupta’s life and accomplishments are described in ancient Hindu, Buddhist and Greek texts, but they vary significantly in details from the Jaina accounts. Megasthenes served as a Greek ambassador in his court for four years. In Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrokottos (Greek: Σανδροκόττος), Sandrakottos (Greek: Σανδράκοττος) and Androcottus (Greek: Ανδροκόττος).
Chandragupta Maurya was a pivotal figure in the history of India. Prior to his consolidation of power, Alexander the Great had invaded the northwest Indian subcontinent, then abandoned further campaigning in 324 BCE, leaving a legacy of Indian subcontinental regions ruled by Indo-Greek and local rulers.[19] The region was divided into Mahajanapadas, while the Nanda Empire dominated the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Chandragupta, with the counsel of his Chief Minister Chanakya (the Brahmin also known as Kautilya), created a new empire, applied the principles of statecraft, built a large army and continued expanding the boundaries of his empire. Greek rulers such as Seleucus I Nicator avoided war with him, entered into a marriage alliance instead, and retreated into Persia. Chandragupta’s empire extended from Bengal to most of the Indian subcontinent, except the southernmost regions (now Tamil Nadu, Kerala and nearby) and Kalinga (now Odisha region).
After unifying much of India, Chandragupta and Chanakya passed a series of major economic and political reforms. He established a strong central administration from Pataliputra (now Patna), patterned after Chanakya’s text on governance and politics, the Arthashastra. Chandragupta’s India was characterised by an efficient and highly organised structure. The empire built infrastructure such as irrigation, temples, mines and roads, leading to a strong economy. With internal and external trade thriving and agriculture flourishing, the empire built a large and trained permanent army to help expand and protect its boundaries. Chandragupta’s reign, as well the dynasty that followed him, was an era when many religions thrived in India, with Buddhism, Jainism and Ajivika gaining prominence along with the Brahmanism traditions. A memorial to Chandragupta Maurya exists on the Chandragiri hill, along with a 7th-century hagiographic inscription, on one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola, Karnakata.

More info at: Chandragupta Maurya – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Chandragupta Maurya
Occupation:
      1st Mauryan Emperor
Reign:
      c. 321 – c. 297 BCE
Coronation:
      c. 321 BCE
Birth:
      c. 340 BCE

      Pipphalivana near Pataliputra and Ramagrama or Devdaha, close to Magadha (modern-day Nepal and Patna, Bihar)
Death:
      297 BCE

    Shravanabelagola, Karnataka (Jain legend)
Spouse:
      Durdhara


Additional Information:

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya of India

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya of India was raised a slave cow herder owned by a Brahmin politician who tutored him in military tactics. Continue reading

King Chandragupta Maurya Converts to Jainism

The first emperor of India, King Chandragupta Maurya converted to Jainism following his Indian conquest and reigned from 321 to 297 BCE. Continue reading

Domesticated chickens

In India some 5.000 years ago, chickens were domesticated. Continue reading