Moon Map Published by Hevelius

Johannes Hevelius (born Jan Heweliusz) from Gdansk, Poland published a moon map in the Selenographia in 1647. Galileo first made moon drawings in 1609, yet Hevelius’ map first depicted the entire detailed visible moon surface containing the lunar features we know today, Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquility). Later, Italian Jesuit astronomer, Giovanni Battista Riccioli and published in the Almagestum novum in 1651.

      1647, 1609
      Johannes Hevelius
      Gdansk, Poland

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Invention of Pendulum Clock

Vincenzo Galilei, the son of Galileo invented the pendulum clock in 1641. He realized the pendulum, at regular oscillation periods would make an efficient and accurate regulator of clock movement. Vincenzio’s clock design was improved upon by Dutch mathematician and astronomer, Christiaan Huygens in 1656. The weight-driven, pendulum-regulated led to smaller and less expensive wall clocks priced for the public.

      Christiaan Huygens
      Italy, Netherlands

Additional Information:

  • Galileo’s escapement – Wikipedia
    Galileo’s escapement is a design for a clock escapement, invented around 1637 by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642). It was the earliest design of a pendulum clock. Since he was blind, Galileo described the device to his son, who drew a sketch of it.
  • Galileo and the pendulum clock
    Jul 8, 2009 – At the end of his life he devised a scheme for using a pendulum to regulate a mechanical clock. However, the first reliable pendulum clock was only demonstrated by Huygens 15 years after Galileo’s death. Vincenzo Vivani became Galileo’s assistant in 1639. He went on become an important mathematician in his own right.
  • The Galileo Project | Science | Pendulum Clock
    Pendulum Clock … His first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani, states that he began his study of … Galileo’s discovery was that the period of swing of a pendulum is …
  • Galileo Pendulum Clock Model, Replica | National Museum of …
    After decades of experiments with the pendulum, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) conceived of a pendulum clock that could be used to determine longitude at sea. Near the end of his life, blind and in failing health, he discussed the design with his son Vincenzio and his biographer Vincenzo Viviani.
  • Galileo’s Pendulum clock designed by Galileo (c.1642) and made by …
    Image: Galileo’s Pendulum clock designed by Galileo (c.1642) and made by his son in 1649 … was the most fundamental advance in the history of time measurement. The pendulum was partly constructed by Galileo’s son Vincenzio in 1649.

Roman Commercial Bakeries

Romans developed commercial bakeries in 200 BCE. A bakery was unearthed in the ruins of Pompeii containing the remains of bakes loaves.

      200 BCE
      Pompeii, Italy

Additional Information:

  • Cura Annonae – Wikipedia
    In ancient Rome, the Roman government used the term Cura Annonae in honour of their … By the late 200s BCE, grain was being shipped to the city of Rome from Sicily and Sardinia. …. and then either baked the flour into bread at a home oven, a communal oven, or one of the numerous bakeries in every district of the city.
  • Food and dining in the Roman Empire – Wikipedia
    Food and dining in the Roman Empire reflect both the variety of foodstuffs available through the …. Mills and commercial ovens, usually combined in a bakery complex, were considered so vital to the wellbeing of ….. to Roman territorial expansion, dating the introduction of the first chefs to 187 BC, following the Galatian War.
  • The Economy of the Early Roman Empire – American Economic …
    I focus on the early Roman Empire, which followed the Roman Republic in … Empire that began around 200 CE, when the failings of Imperial control led to ….. men for commercial agents because they could act as agents for land owners … miserable condition of slaves working in the bakery overseen by Apuleius’ golden.
  • Bakers and the Baking Trade in the Roman Empire: Social and …
    Pistor Redemptor: Eurysaces and the Baking Trade in Rome. …. intervention, the bulk of this evidence, as we shall see, postdates the introduction of the bread dole in the third century CE. …. 200: quom a pistore panem petimus; Bacch. 781 …

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