This was the first such system in the world. Boston, MA, USA, in 1878, legally established a probation system for criminals as a judicial policy. Continue reading
New Zealand, an English-speaking country in 1936 was the first to abolish the death penalty. Continue reading
Austria, in a statute of 1787, became the first Nation to abolish capital punishment. Continue reading
Howard was born in North London, either in Hackney or Enfield. His father, also John, was a wealthy upholsterer at Smithfield Market in the city. Continue reading
English philanthropist John Howard, when he becoming high sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1773, he toured the local jail. He found it appallingly unhealthy, and learned that prisoners were forced to pay their own jailers, those unable to pay the discharge fee were kept, even those whose cases were acquitted. In 1974 he got the House of Commons passed prison reform acts that abolished discharge fees and required justices to oversee the health of prisoners. Then in 1777 Howard wrote the reformist tract State of the Prisons.
1773, 1774, 1777
- John Howard (prison reformer) – Wikipedia
John Howard FRS (2 September 1726 – 20 January 1790) was a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
- Prison reform – Wikipedia
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.
- Elizabeth Fry – Wikipedia
Elizabeth Fry (née Gurney, often referred to as Betsy; 21 May 1780 – 12 October 1845) was an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the “angel of prisons”.
Believe it or not, but Organized Police Forces have been around for over 2000 years, circa 6 CE. Continue reading
Fingerprint Branch of Scotland Yard was founded by Edward Henry in 1901, he developed an identification process based on the thumbprint. Continue reading
In the 1999 war crimes case of Anthony Sawoniuk, accused of participating in the murders of 3,800 Jews near Domachevo, Belarus, during the Holocaust, British jury visited the town to examine the evidence firsthand.