Wright Built First Military Aircraft

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Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad (Arabic: مُحمّد‎, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at six years old. He was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib’s wife Fatimah bint Asad. Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave,where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One”, that complete “submission” (islām) to God[12] is the right course of action (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.

Muhammad gained few early followers, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.

The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. “Sign [of God]”), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad’s teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

More info at: Muhammad to be a prophet – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

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Name(s):
      Muhammad
Occupation:
      The founder of Islam
Birth:
      c. 570

      Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia)
Death:
      8 June 632

      Medina, Hejaz, Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia)
Spouses:
      Khadija bint Khuwaylid (595–619)

      Sawda bint Zamʿa (619–632)

      Aisha bint Abi Bakr (619–632)

      Hafsa bint Umar (624–632)

      Zaynab bint Khuzayma (625–627)

      Hind bint Abi Umayya (625–632)

      Zaynab bint Jahsh (627–632)

      Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (628–632)

      Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (628–632)

      Rayhana bint Zayd (629–631)

      Safiyya bint Huyayy (629–632)

      Maymunah bint al-Harith (630–632)

      Maria al-Qibtiyya (630–632)

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان‎, Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

Muawiyah was appointed as the Governor of Syria after his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan died. During the time of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muawiyah convinced Talha and Zubayr to revolt against Ali. This led to the Battle of the Camel, the first battle in the First Fitna (the first Islamic civil war). In 657, Muawiya’s army attacked the army of Ali at the Battle of Siffin. After the death of Ali in 661, Muawiya’s army approached that of Ali’s son and successor, Hasan ibn Ali. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Hasan signed a peace treaty with Muawiyah. Muawiyah then assumed power; however, Muawiyah ended up breaking all his requirements set out by the peace treaty.

More info at: Muawiyah I – Wikipedia

Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:

Name(s):
      Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan
Occupation:
      Founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
Birth:
      602 AD, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Death:
      680 AD, Damascus, Syria


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