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Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان, Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
Muawiyah was appointed as the Governor of Syria after his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan died. During the time of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muawiyah convinced Talha and Zubayr to revolt against Ali. This led to the Battle of the Camel, the first battle in the First Fitna (the first Islamic civil war). In 657, Muawiya’s army attacked the army of Ali at the Battle of Siffin. After the death of Ali in 661, Muawiya’s army approached that of Ali’s son and successor, Hasan ibn Ali. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Hasan signed a peace treaty with Muawiyah. Muawiyah then assumed power; however, Muawiyah ended up breaking all his requirements set out by the peace treaty.
More info at: Muawiyah I – Wikipedia
Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan
Founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
602 AD, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
680 AD, Damascus, Syria
- Muawiyah I – Wikipedia
Muawiyah I was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was …
- Muʿāwiyah I | Umayyad caliph | Britannica.com
Muʿāwiyah I, in full Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān, Muʿāwiyah also spelled Moawiyah, (born c. 602, Mecca, Arabia—died April/May 680, Damascus), early Islamic …
- Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan
Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية ابن أبي سفيان Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; 602–680) was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by …
- Muawiyah – New World Encyclopedia
Oct 25, 2018 – Muawiyah (معاوية) was born (c. 602) into a powerful clan (Banu Abd Shams), of the tribe of the Quraysh. The Quraysh controlled the city of …
- Social Intelligence: The Wisdom of Muawiya – Econlib
Nov 12, 2012 – My favorite quotation in the entirety of Larry Gonick’s magisterial Cartoon History of the Universe series is from the Caliph Muawiya. Behold …
- Category: Muawiyah I – Wikimedia Commons
May 17, 2018 – Caliph Muawiya Calligaprhy.png. Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Wikipedia Wikisource-logo.svg Wikisource. Date of birth, 603 (statement with …
- Kids.Net.Au – Encyclopedia > Muawiyah I
Mu’awiyah I (602-680), early Islamic leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty[?] of caliphs. He fought against the fourth caliph, ‘Ali[?] (Muhammad’s …
- Muawiyah I – معاویة بن ابیسفیان First Caliph of Umayyads Dynasty r …
Apr 17, 2017 – Genealogy for Muawiyah I – معاویة بن ابیسفیان First Caliph of Umayyads Dynasty r.661-680 (deceased) family tree on Geni, with over 185 …
- Muawiyah I bin Sakhr (Abu Sufyan), 1st Umayyad Caliph (c.602 – 680 …
Jun 9, 2016 – Genealogy for Muawiyah I bin Sakhr (Abu Sufyan), 1st Umayyad Caliph (c.602 – 680) family tree on Geni, with over 180 million profiles of …
- Founders: Who was Muawiya I? | Exploring History
Dec 10, 2017 – Credit to this reemergence mostly went to its founder – Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan. Early Career. Born in 602 in Mecca, Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan …
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, an Arabian theologian launched the Islamic revivalist reform movement in 1736. Continue reading
Zoroastrian Reform Society, founded in 1851 in Bombay, India, by followers who hoped to modernize the religion. Continue reading
Gautama Buddha (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama [sid̪ːʱɑːrt̪ʰə gəut̪əmə], Shakyamuni Buddha [ɕɑːkjəmun̪i bud̪ːʱə], or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.
Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala.
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
More info at: Gautama Buddha – Wikipedia
Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
Founder of Buddhism
c. 563 BCE or c. 480 BCE
Lumbini, Shakya Republic
c. 483 BCE or c. 400 BCE
Kushinagar, Malla Republic
- Gautama Buddha – Wikipedia
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha’s life.
- Siddhartha Gautama – Ancient History Encyclopedia
Siddhartha Gautama (also known as the Buddha “the awakened one”) was the leader and founder of a sect of wanderer ascetics (Sramanas), one of many sects which existed at that time all over India.
- The Buddhist World: Gautama Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, was born in the sixth century B.C. in what is now modern Nepal.
- Buddha – Religious Figure – Biography.com
Born in Nepal in the 6th century B.C., Buddha was a spiritual leader and teacher whose life serves as the foundation of the Buddhist religion.
- Who Is The Buddha? – The Story of Siddhartha Gautama
the Buddha, or Siddhartha Gautama, was born around 567 B.C.E., in a small kingdom just below the Himalayan foothills. His father was a chief of the Shakya clan.
- Siddhartha Gautama – Shippensburg University
There was a small country in what is now southern Nepal that was ruled by a clan called the Shakyas. The head of this clan, and the king of this country, was named Shuddodana Gautama, and his wife was the beautiful Mahamaya.
- Gautama Buddha Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline
Gautama Buddha was a spiritual leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived in eastern India/ Nepal during the 6th to 4th century B.C.
- Siddhartha Gautama
Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, was the Indian spiritual teacher who founded Buddhism. It is generally agreed that he was born circa 563 BCE—though estimates range a century to each side—as a prince in the Shakya Kingdom in modern-day Nepal.
Jainism, Atheistic religious movement that arose in India in the sixth century BCE, was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, Principles being the salvation of an individual soul as the consequence of an ascetic life leading to detachment from material things. Continue reading