Pope Gregory IX instituted the Papal Inquisition in 1231, to eradicate the Cathari and Waldensians heretics living in Italy and France. Continue reading
Muhammad (Arabic: مُحمّد, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.
Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at six years old. He was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib’s wife Fatimah bint Asad. Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave,where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One”, that complete “submission” (islām) to God is the right course of action (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
Muhammad gained few early followers, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.
The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. “Sign [of God]”), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad’s teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).
More info at: Muhammad to be a prophet – Wikipedia
Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
***Portrait Image Here***
The founder of Islam
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia)
8 June 632
Medina, Hejaz, Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia)
Khadija bint Khuwaylid (595–619)
Sawda bint Zamʿa (619–632)
Aisha bint Abi Bakr (619–632)
Hafsa bint Umar (624–632)
Zaynab bint Khuzayma (625–627)
Hind bint Abi Umayya (625–632)
Zaynab bint Jahsh (627–632)
Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (628–632)
Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (628–632)
Rayhana bint Zayd (629–631)
Safiyya bint Huyayy (629–632)
Maymunah bint al-Harith (630–632)
Maria al-Qibtiyya (630–632)
- Muhammad to be a prophet – Wikipedia
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached …
- Muhammad: The Prophet – Wikipedia
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God …
- Muhammad | Biography | Britannica.com
Jan 1, 2019 – Alternative Titles: Aḥmad, Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim. … Muhammad, in full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, (born c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died June 8, 632 …
- Muhammad Biography – Biography
Visit Biography.com and study the life and legacy of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam.
- Prophet Muhammad – Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Muhammad. Muslims believe that Muhammad (ca. 570 – 632 ) was God’s Messenger sent to proclaim in Arabic the same revelation that had been proclaimed …
- 10 things you should know about Prophet Muhammad – StepFeed
Prophet Muhammad (570 – 632 AD,) the central figure of Islam, is believed to be the last of the prophets and the last Messenger of God to mankind.
- Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet . Life of Muhammad: HTML Timeline …
570, Muhammad’s Birth and Infancy Muhammad was born in the year 570 in the town of Mecca, a mountain town in the high desert plateau of western Arabia.
- The Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam | The Metropolitan …
The rise of Islam is intrinsically linked with the Prophet Muhammad, believed by Muslims to be the last in a long line of prophets that includes Moses and Jesus.
- Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet . Muhammad and Jews of Medina …
There were rabbis among the Jews of Medina, who appear in Muslim sources soon after Muhammad proclaimed himself a prophet. At that time the quizzical …
- It’s Not Free Speech to Criticize Muhammad, ECHR Ruled – The Atlantic
A human-rights court upheld an Austrian woman’s conviction for disparaging the Prophet Muhammad.
- Islamic Theologian Says Prophet Muhammad Likely Never Existed …
Islamic theologian Muhammad Sven Kalisch has announced a surprising theory: The Prophet Muhammad probably never existed.
Muhammad built the Prophet’s Mosque between 622-634 in his Medina, Saudi Arabia backyard. Continue reading
Abu Bakr the father-in-law of Muhammad was Islam’s first convert in 622. Continue reading
Muhammad established the Muslim prayer ritual, the salah in 622, consisting of statements of faith, recitations from the Qur'an, and a sequence of postures, including standing, bowing, sitting, and prostration. Continue reading
Chandragupta Maurya was a pivotal figure in the history of India. Prior to his consolidation of power, Alexander the Great had invaded the northwest Indian subcontinent, then abandoned further campaigning in 324 BCE, leaving a legacy of Indian subcontinental regions ruled by Indo-Greek and local rulers. The region was divided into Mahajanapadas, while the Nanda Empire dominated the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Chandragupta, with the counsel of his Chief Minister Chanakya (the Brahmin also known as Kautilya), created a new empire, applied the principles of statecraft, built a large army and continued expanding the boundaries of his empire. Greek rulers such as Seleucus I Nicator avoided war with him, entered into a marriage alliance instead, and retreated into Persia. Chandragupta’s empire extended from Bengal to most of the Indian subcontinent, except the southernmost regions (now Tamil Nadu, Kerala and nearby) and Kalinga (now Odisha region).
After unifying much of India, Chandragupta and Chanakya passed a series of major economic and political reforms. He established a strong central administration from Pataliputra (now Patna), patterned after Chanakya’s text on governance and politics, the Arthashastra. Chandragupta’s India was characterised by an efficient and highly organised structure. The empire built infrastructure such as irrigation, temples, mines and roads, leading to a strong economy. With internal and external trade thriving and agriculture flourishing, the empire built a large and trained permanent army to help expand and protect its boundaries. Chandragupta’s reign, as well the dynasty that followed him, was an era when many religions thrived in India, with Buddhism, Jainism and Ajivika gaining prominence along with the Brahmanism traditions. A memorial to Chandragupta Maurya exists on the Chandragiri hill, along with a 7th-century hagiographic inscription, on one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola, Karnakata.
More info at: Chandragupta Maurya – Wikipedia
Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
1st Mauryan Emperor
c. 321 – c. 297 BCE
c. 321 BCE
c. 340 BCE
Pipphalivana near Pataliputra and Ramagrama or Devdaha, close to Magadha (modern-day Nepal and Patna, Bihar)
Shravanabelagola, Karnataka (Jain legend)
- Chandragupta Maurya – Wikipedia
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: c.321–c. 297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India. He was born in a humble family, orphaned and …
- Chandragupta Maurya – Ancient History Encyclopedia
Indian Emperor Chandragupta Maurya lived from 340-298 BCE and was the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. … Chandragupta’s courage, coupled with Kautilya Chanakya’s intelligence, turned the Mauryan Empire into one of the most powerful governments of the time. … In 322 BCE he finally …
- Chandragupta Maurya Biography – Facts, Life History, Reign …
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Let’s take a look at his childhood, life history, reign, administration, empire, death and some …
- Chandragupta | emperor of India | Britannica.com
Chandragupta: Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan dynasty (reigned c. 321–c. 297 bce) and the first emperor to unify most of India under one administration.
- Chandragupta Maurya – SonyLIV
This is a historical saga of the first king of united India, Chandragupta Maurya. After the death of Porus, Alexander has left behind his general, Seleucus Nicator …
- 7 January 2019 – Chandragupta Maurya – The Map – SonyLIV
Mura becomes furious with Chanakya when she uncovers about Chandra’s journey, but no amount of assurance can protect Chandragupta.
- Chandragupta Maurya Biography, History and Facts – Maps of India
One of the stalwarts of India’s freedom movement, Chandragupta Maurya also known as Lokmanya Tilak was born in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra on July 23, 1856.
Islam tolerated minor religious Christian and Jewish communities living near Jordan, Saudi Arabia in 630 as the Muslims required pagans to convert to islam or risk being killed. Continue reading
Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان, Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
Muawiyah was appointed as the Governor of Syria after his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan died. During the time of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muawiyah convinced Talha and Zubayr to revolt against Ali. This led to the Battle of the Camel, the first battle in the First Fitna (the first Islamic civil war). In 657, Muawiya’s army attacked the army of Ali at the Battle of Siffin. After the death of Ali in 661, Muawiya’s army approached that of Ali’s son and successor, Hasan ibn Ali. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Hasan signed a peace treaty with Muawiyah. Muawiyah then assumed power; however, Muawiyah ended up breaking all his requirements set out by the peace treaty.
More info at: Muawiyah I – Wikipedia
Additional Articles associated with this person’s firsts:
Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan
Founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
602 AD, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
680 AD, Damascus, Syria
- Muawiyah I – Wikipedia
Muawiyah I was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was …
- Muʿāwiyah I | Umayyad caliph | Britannica.com
Muʿāwiyah I, in full Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān, Muʿāwiyah also spelled Moawiyah, (born c. 602, Mecca, Arabia—died April/May 680, Damascus), early Islamic …
- Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan
Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية ابن أبي سفيان Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; 602–680) was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by …
- Muawiyah – New World Encyclopedia
Oct 25, 2018 – Muawiyah (معاوية) was born (c. 602) into a powerful clan (Banu Abd Shams), of the tribe of the Quraysh. The Quraysh controlled the city of …
- Social Intelligence: The Wisdom of Muawiya – Econlib
Nov 12, 2012 – My favorite quotation in the entirety of Larry Gonick’s magisterial Cartoon History of the Universe series is from the Caliph Muawiya. Behold …
- Category: Muawiyah I – Wikimedia Commons
May 17, 2018 – Caliph Muawiya Calligaprhy.png. Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Wikipedia Wikisource-logo.svg Wikisource. Date of birth, 603 (statement with …
- Kids.Net.Au – Encyclopedia > Muawiyah I
Mu’awiyah I (602-680), early Islamic leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty[?] of caliphs. He fought against the fourth caliph, ‘Ali[?] (Muhammad’s …
- Muawiyah I – معاویة بن ابیسفیان First Caliph of Umayyads Dynasty r …
Apr 17, 2017 – Genealogy for Muawiyah I – معاویة بن ابیسفیان First Caliph of Umayyads Dynasty r.661-680 (deceased) family tree on Geni, with over 185 …
- Muawiyah I bin Sakhr (Abu Sufyan), 1st Umayyad Caliph (c.602 – 680 …
Jun 9, 2016 – Genealogy for Muawiyah I bin Sakhr (Abu Sufyan), 1st Umayyad Caliph (c.602 – 680) family tree on Geni, with over 180 million profiles of …
- Founders: Who was Muawiya I? | Exploring History
Dec 10, 2017 – Credit to this reemergence mostly went to its founder – Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan. Early Career. Born in 602 in Mecca, Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan …
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, an Arabian theologian launched the Islamic revivalist reform movement in 1736. Continue reading
Islamic civil war erupted upon the assassination of the third caliph Uthman ibn Affan, in 656 by Egyptian soldiers. Continue reading