Romans Invented Actuarial Tables

Ancient Romans invented mortality tables that calculated the risk of death for people at various ages in 220 CE, which financed funeral expenses and paid pensions to the families of the deceased.

      220 CE
      Rome, Italy

Additional Information:

  • Ulpian’s life table – Wikipedia
    Ulpian’s life table is an ancient Roman annuities table. It is known through a passage, originating from the jurist Aemilius Macer, preserved in edited form in Justinian’s Digest. The table appears to provide a rough outline of ancient Roman life expectancy. …. Nevertheless, it is the practice for the computation to be made for thirty years …
  • Demography of the Roman Empire – Wikipedia
    Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state. It had high infant mortality, a low marriage age, and high fertility within …. On two important points, the table may seriously misrepresent the Roman situation: the ….. High mortality rates and pre-modern sanitary conditions made urban regions net …
  • Estimations of the Roman Life Expectancy Using Ulpian´s Table
    Aug 12, 2017 – made. Simulations show that a range of the life expectancy between 20 … Key Words: Life Table, Mortality Law, Gompertz-Makeham, Roman …
  • Frier’s Life Table for the Roman Empire – Richard Carrier
    Adapted from “Frier’s Life Table for the Roman Empire,” … Coale & Demeny, Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations, 2nd ed. … Life Expectancy …
  • Ancient and Early Modern Mortality: Experience and … – jstor
    high mortality model life tables that describe the experiences of such popu- … detailed analysis of the age structure of the Roman population and, more … Scheidel has made some especially important contributions to the critique of how.

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